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Lead Contents

Photoelectric Sensors

Photoelectric Sensors detect photo-optical workpieces. OMRON provides many varieties of Sensor, including diffuse-reflective, through-beam, retro-reflective, and distance-settable Sensors, as well as Sensors with either built-in or separate amplifiers and Fiber Units.

Related Contents

Primary Contents

Explanation of Terms

ItemExplanatory diagramMeaning
Sensing
distance
Through-beam
Sensors
The maximum sensing distance that can be set with stability for Through-beam and Retro-reflective Sensors, taking into account product deviations and temperature fluctuations. Actual distances under standard conditions will be longer than the rated sensing distances for both types of Sensor.
Retro-reflective
Sensors
Diffuse-reflective
Sensors
The maximum sensing distance that can be set with stability for the Diffuse-reflective Sensors, taking into account product deviations and temperature fluctuations, using the standard sensing object (white paper). Actual distances under standard conditions will be longer than the rated sensing distance.
Limited-reflective
Sensors
As shown in the diagram at left, the optical system for the Limited-reflective Sensors is designed so that the Emitter axis and the Receiver axis intersect at the surface of the detected object at an angle θ.
With this optical system, the distance range in which regular-reflective light from the object can be detected consistently is the sensing distance. As such, the sensing distance can range from 10 to 35 mm depending on the upper and lower limits.
Mark Sensors
(Contrast scanner)
As shown in the diagram at left, the optical system for Mark Sensors is designed so that the Emitter axis is perpendicular to the detected object, and the reflected light axis intersects the Emitter axis at an angle θ. As such, the Receiver receives only diffuse reflected light, with no influence from regular reflection, and thus color detection is possible on the detected object.
Set
range/
Sensing
range
Distance-settable
Sensors
Limits can be set on the sensing position of objects with Distance-settable Sensors. The range that can be set for a standard sensing object (white paper) is called the "set range." The range with the set position limits where a sensing object can be detected is called the "sensing range." The sensing range depends on the sensing mode that is selected. The BGS mode is used when the sensing object is on the Sensor side of the set position and the FGS mode is used when the sensing object is on the far side of the set position.
Directional angle
Through-beam Sensors, Retro-reflective Sensors
The angle where operation as a Photoelectric Sensor is possible.
Differential travel
Diffuse-reflective and Distance-settable Sensors
The difference between the operating distance and the reset distance.
Generally expressed in catalogs as a percentage of the rated sensing distance.
Dead zone
The Dead zone outside of the emission and reception areas near the lens surface in Mark Sensors, Distance-settable Sensors, Limited reflective Sensors, Diffuse-reflective Sensors, and Retro-reflective Sensors.
Detection is not possible in this area.
Response time
The delay time from when the light input turns ON or OFF until the control output operates or resets. In general for Photoelectric Sensors, the operating time (Ton) ≈ reset time (Toff).
ItemExplanatory diagramMeaning
Dark-ON
operation
(DARK ON)
The "Dark-ON" operating mode is when a Through-beam Sensor produces an output when the light entering the Receiver is interrupted or decreases.

The "Light-ON" operating mode is when a Diffuse-reflective Sensor produces an output when the light entering the Receiver increases.
Light-on
operation
(LIGHT ON)
Ambient
operating
illumination
The ambient operating illumination is expressed in terms of the Receiver surface illuminance and is defined as the illuminance when there is a ±20% change with respect to the value at a light reception output of 200 lx. This is not sufficient to cause malfunction at the operating illuminance limit.
Standard
sensing
object
The standard sensing object for both Through-beam Sensors and Retro-reflective Sensors is an opaque rod with a diameter larger than the length of a diagonal line of the optical system.
In general, the diameter of the standard sensing object is the length of the diagonal line of the Emitter/Receiver lens for Through-beam Sensors, and the length of a diagonal line of the Reflector for Retro-reflective Sensors.

Size of Standard Sensing Object Using Reflector
Reflector modelsDiagonal line of
optical system
Sensing
object
E39-R1/R1S/R1K72.2 mm75-mm dia.
E39-R2100.58 mm105-mm dia.
E39-R341.44 mm45-mm dia.
E39-R426.77 mm30-mm dia.
E39-R656.57 mm60-mm dia.
E39-R943.7 mm45-mm dia.
E39-R1066.47 mm70-mm dia.
E39-RS136.4 mm40-mm dia.
E39-RS253.15 mm55-mm dia.
E39-RS3106.3 mm110-mm dia.
E39-R3713.4 mm15-mm dia.
For Diffuse-reflective Sensors, the standard sensing object is a sheet of white paper larger than the diameter of the emitted beam.
Minimum
sensing
object
Typical examples are given of the smallest object that can be detected using Through-beam and Retro-reflective Sensors with the sensitivity correctly adjusted to the light-ON operation level at the rated sensing distance.

For Diffuse-reflective Sensors, typical examples are given of the smallest objects that can be detected with the sensitivity set to the highest level.
Minimum
sensing
object
with slit
attached
Through-beam Sensors
Typical examples are given of the smallest object that can be detected using Through-beam Sensors with a Slit attached to both the Emitter and the Receiver as shown in the figure. The sensitivity is correctly adjusted to the Light-ON operating level at the rated sensing distance and the sensing object is moved along the length and parallel to the slit.

Application and Data

(1)Relationship of Lens Diameter and Sensitivity to the Smallest Detectable Object

With a Through-beam Sensor, the lens diameter determines the size of the smallest object that can be detected.

With a Through-beam Sensor, a small object can be more easily detected midway between the Emitter and the Receiver that it can be off center between the Emitter and Receiver.

As a rule of thumb, an object 30% to 80% of the lens diameter can be detected by varying the sensitivity level.

Check the Ratings and Specifications of the Sensor for details.

The size given for the smallest object that can be detected with a Reflective Photoelectric Sensor is the value for detection with no objects in the background and the sensitivity set to the maximum value.

Maximum sensitivityAdjusted sensitivity
Detects objects 80% of the lens diameter.Detects objects up to 30% of the lens diameter.

(2) Detecting Height Differences

Selecting Sensors Based on Detectable Height Differences and Set Distances (Typical Examples)

Selecting_Sensors_Based_on_Detectable_Height_Differences_and_Set_Distances_diagrams

(3) MSR (Mirror Surface Rejection) Function

Principles

This function and structure uses the characteristics of the Retroreflector and the polarizing filters built into the Retro-reflective Sensors to receive only the light reflected from the Retroreflector.

The waveform of the light transmitted through a polarizing filter in the Emitter changes to polarization in a horizontal orientation.

The orientation of the light reflected from the triangular pyramids of the Retroreflector changes from horizontal to vertical.

This reflected light passes through a polarizing filter in the Receiver to arrive at the Receiver.

Purpose

This method enables stable detection of objects with a mirror-like surface.
Light reflected from these types of objects cannot pass through the polarizing filter on the Receiver because the orientation of polarization is kept horizontal.

Examples

A sensing object with a rough, matte surface (example (2)) can be detected even without the MSR function. If the sensing object has a smooth, glossy surface on the other hand (example (3)), it cannot be detected with any kind of consistency without the MSR function.

(1) No Object(2) Non-glossy Object(3) Object with a Smooth, Glossy Surface(Example: battery, can, etc.)
The light from the Emitter hits the Reflector and returns to the Receiver.Light from the Emitter is intercepted by the object, does not reach the Reflector, and thus does not return to the Receiver.Light from the Emitter is reflected by the objectand returns to the Receiver.

Caution

Stable operation is often impossible when detecting objects with high gloss or objects covered with glossy film. If this occurs, install the Sensor so that it is at an angle off perpendicular to the sensing object.

Retro-reflective Sensors with MSR function

Retro-reflective Sensors with MSR function
Classification by ConfigurationModel
Optical Fiber SensorsE32-R21, E32-R16
Built-in Amplifier SensorsE3Z-R61/R66/R81/R86
E3ZM-R61/R66/R81/R86/B61/B66/B81/B86
E3ZM-CR61(-M1TJ)/CR81(-M1TJ)
E3S-CR11(-M1J)/CR61(-M1J)
Separate Amplifier SensorsE3C-LR11/LR12
Built-in Power Supply SensorsE3JM-R4[]4(T), E3JK-R2M[]/R2S3

Note:When using a Sensor with the MSR function, be sure to use an OMRON Reflector

Retro-reflective Sensors without MSR Function

When detecting a glossy object using a Retro-reflective Sensor without the MSR function, mount the Sensor diagonally to the object so that reflection is not received directly from the front surface.

Retro-reflective Sensors without MSR Function
Classification by ConfigurationModel
Transparent Object SensorsE3Z-B61/B62/B66/B67/B81/B82/B86/B87

(4) Surface Color and Light Source Reflectance

Surface Color Reflectance

Reflectance of Various Colors at Different Wavelengths of Light

Identifiable Color Marks

Applicable Sensor Light Colors: : Red light source : Green light source : Blue light source
Sensors with a RGB light source can detect all combinations.

These figures represent typical examples of ratios for light reflected by the back and mark.

Sensor light colorProduct classificationModel
Red light source
Optical Fiber SensorsE3X-HD
E3X-SD
E3X-NA
E3X-DA-S
E3X-MDA
Separate Amplifier SensorsE3C-VS3R
E3C-VM35R
E3C-VS7R
Blue light source
Optical Fiber SensorsE3X-DAB-S
Green light source
Optical Fiber SensorsE3X-DAG-S
E3X-NAG
Separate Amplifier SensorsE3C-VS1G
White light source
Optical Fiber SensorsE3X-DAC-S

(5) Self-diagnosis Functions

The self-diagnosis function checks for margin with respect to environmental changes after installation, especially temperature, and informs the operator of the result through indicators and outputs. This function is an effective means of early detection of product failure, optical axis displacement, and accumulation of dirt on the lens over time.

Principles

These functions alert the operator when the Sensor changes from a stable state to an unstable state. The functions can be broadly classified into display functions and output functions.

Display function

Stability Indicator (green LED)
The amount of margin with respect to environmental changes (temperature, voltage, dust, etc.) after installation is monitored by the self-diagnosis function and indicated by an indicator. (Illuminates steadily when there are no problems.)

Operation Indicator (Orange LED)
Indicates the output status.

Output function

The margin is indicated by an indicator light, and the state is output to alert the operator.

Purpose

Self-diagnosis functions are effective in maintaining stable operation, alerting the operator to displacement of the optical axis, dirt on the lens (Sensor surface), the influence from the floor and background, external noise, and other potential failures of the Sensor.

Display_and_Output_function_diagrams

Example: Light-ON Operation

Indicator stateLight-ON/Dark-ON indicated bythe orange indicatorDegree of margin with respect to temperature changes indicated by the green indicatorSelf-diagnosisoutputExample of diagnosed condition
Light Incident
(orange indicator ON)
Stable use is possible.
(Margin of 10% to 20% or higher)
(Stability indicator: ON)
The margin is not
sufficient.
(Green indicator: OFF)
When this state
continues for a
certain period
of time, an
output alerts
the operator.
Light
Interrupted
(orange indicator OFF)
Stable use is possible.
(Margin of 10% to 20% or higher)
(Stability indicator: ON)

Applicable Models

Classification by ConfigurationModelsSelf-diagnosis function
Display functionOutput function
Optical Fiber SensorsE3X-DA-SDigital display
E3X-MDADigital display---
E3X-NA---
Separate Amplifier SensorsE3C-LDADigital display
E3C● (E3C-JC4P)
Built-in Amplifier SensorsE3Z---
E3ZM(-C)---
E3T---
E3S-C---
E3S-CL---

Safety Standards for Laser Beams

Safety Standards for Laser Beams

The laser beams that are emitted from lasers have a high power density and can cause damage to the human body, even if the quantity of light is small. In Japan, in order to prevent injury to users of laser products, a Japanese Industrial Standard, Radiation Safety Standards for Laser Products (JIS C 6802), has been established. It is based on the corresponding International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard.
The JIS C 6802 standard divides laser products into different classes according to the degree of the hazard, and specifies the required safety measures for each class.
An overview of the classifications is given on the right.

ClassOverview of hazard evaluation
Class 1Fundamentally safe design.
Class 1MLow output (wavelengths between 302.5 and 4,000 nm).
Safety under certain conditions, including observation into the beam. Observation into the beam by
optical means may be hazardous.
Class 2Visible light, low output (wavelengths between 400 and 700 nm).
Normally, the eyes are protected by the aversion response, including direct observation into the beam.
Class 2MVisible light, low output (wavelengths between 400 and 700 nm).
The eyes are normally protected by the aversion response.
Observation into the beam by optical means may be hazardous.
Class 3RThe output is less than five times that of a visible Class 2 laser (wavelengths between 400 and 700 nm),
and less than fives times that of a non-visible Class 1 laser (minimum wavelength of 302.5 nm).
Direct observation into the beam may be hazardous.
Class 3BOutput of 0.5 W max. Direct observation into the beam is hazardous.
Observation of pulse-laser radiation, however, which is rendered unfocused by diffuse reflection, is not
hazardous and, under certain conditions, observation is safe.
Class 4High output. There is a possibility of hazardous diffuse reflection.
This may result in skin disorders or fire.

Definitions of Laser Classifications

The safety standards for laser beams are different for each country and region. The definitions for laser classifications in Europe and the United States are described below.

Europe (EN 60825-1)

The classification standards set forth in European Standard EN 60825-1:2007 is consistent with the JIS standard C6802:2005.
You should always check the original text of the standard when trying to attain conformance.

USA

* The following information was edited by OMRON based on the actual standard. OMRON assumes no responsibility for this information. You should always check the original text of the standard before implementing an actual application.

Class
(FDA/ANSI)
Definition by the FDADefinition by the ANSI
Class I/1This class is applied and limited to equipment
that emits ultraviolet, visible, and infrared light.
It is also limited to light that does not pose a
specific threat to living organisms.
This class is applied when the device in question
is not believed to output a potentially damaging
laser beam during operation or maintenance.
Such equipment does not require any form of
controller, and does not require any other form
of supervision.
Class IIa/2aThis class has limited application to equipment
whose visible light radiation for no more than
1,000 seconds does not exceed the limitations
of Class I, and are not intended for observation.
Class 2 is divided further into subclasses, Class
2 and Class 2a. Class 2 laser radiation is applied
to light that is in the visible wavelength range
(0.4 to 0.7 μm), and attains eye protection
through the aversion response, including the
blink reflex.
Class II/2Application of this class is limited to equipment
whose lasers are in the visible light wavelength
(400 to 710 nm) and are not radiated for more
than 0.25 seconds, or whose radiation time and
wavelength do not exceed the limitations of
Class I.
Class II products are considered to be hazardous
when viewed directly by exposure through an
eyepiece for long periods of time.
Class IIIa/3aThis class is limited to equipment that radiates
light at visible wavelengths, and do not exceed a
total collection radiation power of 5 mW.
Class 3 is divided into two subclasses, Class 3a
and Class 3b. A Class 3 laser may be hazardous
under direct and specular reflection observation,
but diffuse reflection is normally not considered
to be hazardous.
Class IIIb/3bThis class is applied and limited to equipment
that radiate ultraviolet, visible, and infrared light.
Class IIIb products are included in laser systems
that emit light in the visible wavelength and have
a radiation power of 5 to 500 mW. The full range
of the Class IIIb radiation level is hazardous if
viewed directly through an eyepiece, and is a
potential skin hazard at the high end of the
class.
Class IV/4Lasers in this class exceed the limits of Class
IIIb and are hazardous whether viewed through
spotted reflection or direction radiation.
Class 4 lasers may be hazardous to the eye and
skin if viewed through direction radiation or
diffuse reflection, and are a potential fire hazard.
Class 4 may also produce air contaminants and
hazardous plasma radiation.

Measures for the Prevention of Damage due to Laser Beams

Regarding labor using lasers, the Industrial Safety and Health Law sets out specific details of safety measures for laser equipment that are classified as Class 3R or higher in Measures for the Prevention of Damage due to Laser Beams. The following table gives the criteria for the measures by each class.

Measure (item only)MeasureClass of laser equipment
43B3R2M1M
Appointment of a laser device
manager
Appoint an individual with sufficient knowledge
and experience regarding the prevention of
damage due to laser beams and the handling
of laser equipment.
YesYesYes
Controlled area (signs and restricted
area)
Partition from other areas, indicate the
partition with signs, and prohibit entry to
unauthorized personnel.
YesYes
Laser
equip-
ment
Path of
laser
beam
Position of
path
Avoid eye level of the operator.YesYesYesYesYes
Appropriate
design and
blocking of
path
Keep the path as short as possible, minimize
the number of bends, avoid intersections of
light with pathways, and block light paths as
much as possible.
YesYesYes
Proper
termination
Terminate with diffuse reflection objects or
light absorbing objects that have appropriate
reflectance and heat resistance.
YesYesYesYesYes
Key controlUse a construction where operation is
enabled by key or similar means.
YesYes
Emer-
gency
stop
switches,
etc.
Emergency
stop switches
Provide an emergency stop switch that can
be used to immediately stop laser-beam
emission.
YesYes
Warning systemProvide a warning system with features that
allow easy confirmation, such as indicators
that light automatically.
YesYesYes
ShutterProvide the emission aperture with a shutter
to prevent accidental emission.
YesYes
Interlock system, etc.Ensure that laser-beam emission is stopped
automatically when the controlled area
becomes accessible or the beam patch is
unblocked.
YesYes
Indication of emission
aperture
Indicate the laser-beam emission aperture.YesYesYes
Work
man-
agement,
etc.
Operating positionPerform control of laser equipment from a
position as far away as possible form the
laser-beam path.
Yes
Adjustment of optical
system
Use the minimum amount of power that is
required when adjusting the optical system.
YesYesYesYesYes
Protec-
tive
equip-
ment
Protective
glasses
Wear protective glasses appropriate for the
type of laser used.
YesYesYes
Protective
clothing
Wear clothing that allows only minimum skin
exposure.
YesYes
Use of flame-
retardant
materials
Wear clothing made of flame-retardant
materials. Synthetic fibers that melt and
become sphere-shaped are unsuitable.
Yes
Inspections and
maintenance
Perform inspections before operation and
regular inspections and adjustments at fixed
intervals.
YesYesYesYesYes
Safety and health
education
Provide training when taking on new
personnel, and when changing the work
procedure or the laser equipment.
YesYesYesYesYes
Health-
care
Examinations
of anterior
ocular segment
Administer cornea and lens examinations
together with eyesight examinations when
taking on or transferring personnel.
YesYesYes
Examinations
of the ocular
fundus
Administer ocular-fundus examinations
together with eyesight examinations when
taking on or transferring personnel.
Yes
OthersNotifica-
tion
Supervisor's
name
Provide notification of the laser-equipment
supervisor's name.
YesYesYes
Level of the
hazard
indication
Provide notification regarding the risks and
harmful effects of laser beams, as well as
handling precautions in an obvious location.
YesYesYesYesYes
InstallationProvide signs that indicate the presence of
laser-equipment.
YesYes
High voltage displayProvide indication of high voltages and
implement measures for preventing electric
shock.
YesYesYesYesYes
Prohibi-
tion of
hazard-
ous
objects
In controlled
areas
Prohibit explosive and flammable substances.Yes
Close to path
of laser beam
Prohibit explosive and flammable substances.YesYes
Hazardous gases and dustsImplement the measures prescribed by the
Industrial Safety and Health Law.
YesYes
Examination and treatment
of personnel with
suspected laser-related
injury by medical
professional
Make it possible for personnel with suspected
laser-related injury to be examined and
treated quickly by a medical professional.
YesYesYesYesYes

Standards for Europe

Requirements for Laser-equipment Manufacturers

Europe (EN 60825-1)

* The following information was edited by OMRON based on the actual standard. OMRON assumes no responsibility for this information. You should always check the original text of the standard before implementing an actual application.

RequirementClassification of laser equipment
Class 1Class 1MClass 2Class 2MClass 3RClass 3BClass 4
Description
of risk class
Safe under
reasonably
foreseeable
conditions.
Same as
Class 1 but
may be
hazardous if
the user
designs the
optics.
Lower power:
Eye
protection is
normally
required in
accordance
with the level
of aversion
responses of
humans.
Same as
Class 2 but
may be
hazardous if
the user
designs the
optics.
Observation
of the direct
beam may be
hazardous.
Observation
of the direct
beam is
normally
hazardous.
High power:
Even diffuse
reflections of
the laser may
be hazardous.
Protective
housing
Required for each individual laser equipment: limit the level of accessibility to that
required for the equipment to be functional.
Safety
protection
equipment
The panels must be designed to prevent removal during
use to keep the beam irradiated (at humans) at or below
the level for Class 3R.
The panels must be designed to prevent
removal during use to keep the beam
irradiated at or below the level for Class
3B.
Remote
control
Not required.It must be possible to easily
add external interlocks when
the equipment is installed.
Key controlNot required.Laser must not operate
when the key is removed.
Emission
warning
device
Not required.An audible or visible warning must be
provided when the laser is switched ON or
if capacitors for pulsed laser are being
charged. Only for Class 3R, this applies to
invisible beams.
Beam
attenuator
Not required.A means must be provided
to attenuate the laser beam
in addition to the ON/OFF
switch that is used to
temporarily shut off the
laser beam.
Position
control
Not required.The position must be controlled so that no
hazard exists from exposure that is in
excess of the accessible emission limits of
Class 1 or Class 2 when the laser has been
adjusted.
Optics system
for observation
Not required.Emissions from all observation system must be below the accessible emission limits of
Class 1M.
ScanningLasers must not exceed their assigned laser class even if scan failures occur.
Display of laser
classification
Classification (letters) must
be displayed.
Figure A (see note) and classification (letters) must be displayed.
Indication of
emission
aperture
Not required.The emission aperture must be displayed
with the specified letters.
Indication of
service
(maintenance)
entrance
Indication suitable for the classification of accessible emission is required.
Indication of
Interlock
overrides in
effect
Under specified operating conditions, an indication that is suitable to the classification of the laser
must be given.
Indication of
wavelength
range
Necessary for specified wavelength ranges.
LED indicatorsTextual indication that advises the use of LEDs as a substitute must be provided.
Information to
the user
The operation manual must contain all relevant safety precautions. Additional precautions apply to
Class 1M and Class 2M lasers.
Purchasing and
service
information
Promotional documentation must identify the classification. The service manual must include safety
information.

Note:
1. The above table is a summarization of the basic requirements. You should always check the original text of the standard to understand and apply the actual standards.
2. Laser equipment used for healthcare applications are subject to IEC 60601-2-22.
3. This is the allowed accessible emission limit (AEL) for the corresponding laser class. Referenced standards: ANSI Z136.1-1993, Section 2.

Precautions to Laser-equipment Users

Europe (EN 60825-1)

* The following information was edited by OMRON based on the actual standard. OMRON assumes no responsibility for this information. You should always check the original text of the standard before implementing an actual application.

MeasureClassification of laser equipment
Class 1Class 1MClass 2Class 2MClass 3RClass 3BClass 4
Laser safety
supervisor
Not required.
This is recommended for applications that require
the operator to directly view the laser beam
Not required
for visible
light.
Required for
invisible light.
Required.
Remote
interlock
Not required.Connect to circuit for room
or door.
Key controlNot required.Remove key when not in use.
Beam
attenuator
Not required.Prevent inadvertent exposure
by use.
Emission
display device
Not required.Indicate
activation of
invisible
wavelength
laser.
Indicate the laser is activated.
Warning signsNot required.Follow precautions for warning
indications.
Position of
path
Not
required.
A Class 1M
laser similar to
a Class 3B
laser. *2
Not
required.
A Class 2M
laser similar to
a Class 3B
laser. *3
Terminate beam at the end of the effective
length.
Regular
reflection
No
require-
ments.
A Class 1M
laser similar to
a Class 3B
laser. *2
No
require-
ments.
A Class 2M
laser similar to
a Class 3B
laser. *3
Prevent unintentional reflections.
Eye protectionNo requirements.Not required
for visible light.
Required for
invisible light.
Required when eye protection
by engineering and
administrative controls is not
practical, and the amount of
exposure exceeds the
maximum that is allowed.
Protective
clothing
No requirements.Sometimes
required.
Specific
requirements.
TrainingNo
require-
ments.
A Class 1M
laser similar to
a Class 3R
laser. *2
No
require-
ments.
A Class 2M
laser similar to
a Class 3R
laser. *3
Required for all operators and maintenance
personnel.

*1. The above table is a summarization of the basic requirements. You should always check the original text of the standard to understand and apply the actual standards.
*2. This refers to Class 1M laser products that do not conform to condition 1 in Table 10 of the standard. Not required for Class 1M laser products that do not conform to condition 2 in Table 10 of the standard. Refer to the original text of the standard for details.
*3. This refers to Class 2M laser products that do not conform to condition 1 in Table 10 of the standard. Not required for Class 2M laser products that do not conform to condition 2 in Table 10 of the standard. Refer to the original text of the standard for details.

Standards for the USA

Requirements for Laser-equipment Manufacturers

USFDA (Compliance Guide for Laser Equipment, 1985, 21 CFR 1040.10)

* The following information was edited by OMRON based on the actual standard. OMRON assumes no responsibility for this information. You should always check the original text of the standard before implementing an actual application.

RequirementClassification of laser equipment *1
Class IClass IIaClass IIClass IIIaClass IIIbClass IV
Operation and performance (all laser equipment)
Protective
housing
Required. *2Required. *2Required. *2Required. *2Required. *2Required. *2
Safety protection
equipment
Required.
*3 *4
Required.
*3 *4
Required.
*3 *4
Required.
*3 *4
Required.
*3 *4
Required.
*3 *4
Position controlExceptionRequired.Required.Required.Required.
Limits on optics
for observation
Required.Required.Required.Required.Required.Required.
Scanning safety
measures
Required.Required.Required.Required.Required.Required.
Operation and performance (laser system)
Remote control
connector
ExceptionExceptionExceptionExceptionRequired.Required.
Key controlExceptionExceptionExceptionExceptionRequired.Required.
Indication of
emission
ExceptionExceptionRequired.Required.Required. *10Required. *10
Beam attenuatorExceptionExceptionRequired.Required.Required.Required.
ResettingExceptionExceptionExceptionExceptionExceptionRequired. *13
Operation and performance (products for a specific purpose)
Medical useSame as class
for other
products.
Same as class
for other
products.
Same as class
for other
products.
Same as class
for other
products. *8
Same as class
for other
products. *8
Same as class
for other
products. *8
Measurement,
averaging, and
positioning
Same as class
for other
products.
Same as class
for other
products.
Same as class
for other
products.
Same as class
for other
products.
Prohibited.Prohibited.
DemonstrationSame as class
for other
products.
Same as class
for other
products.
Same as class
for other
products.
Same as class
for other
products.
Same as class
for other
products. *11
Same as class
for other
products. *11
Labelling (all laser equipment)
Certification and
ID label
Required.Required.Required.Required.Required.Required.
Protective
housing
Depends on
internal
radiation level.
*5
Depends on
internal
radiation level.
*5
Depends on
internal
radiation level.
*5
Depends on
internal
radiation level.
*5
Depends on
internal
radiation level.
*5
Depends on
internal
radiation level.
*5
Emission apertureExceptionExceptionRequired.Required.Required.Required.
Laser
classification
warning
ExceptionRequired. *6Required. *7Required. *9Required. *12Required. *12
Information (all laser equipment)
Information to
the user
Required.Required.Required.Required.Required.Required.
Product
documentation
ExceptionRequired.Required.Required.Required.Required.
Servicing
information
Required.Required.Required.Required.Required.Required.

*1. Depends on accessible emission level during operation.
*2. Required for all classes access by personnel to Class I or higher levels of laser emissions is not required for the product to deliver its full performance.
*3. Required if access by personnel is not required at all times when the protective housing must be left open for operation or maintenance.
*4. The level of necessity for interlocks depends on the internal radiation of the laser class.
*5. The indications depend on the laser emission level and wavelength inside the protective housing.
*6. Warning explanatory label.
*7. "CAUTION" logotype.
*8. When the term "Required" is used, it refers to the act of measuring the laser emission level with the intent of irradiating the human body.
*9. "CAUTION" for 2.5 mWcm2 or less, and “DANGER” for 2.5 mWcm2 or more.
*10.A delay is required between the display and actual emission.
*11.The method that is required differs for the demonstration of a Class IIIb or Class IV laser product and just the laser beam itself.
*12."DANGER" logotype.
*13.Required after August 20, 1986.

Precautions to Laser-equipment Users

ANSI Z136.1: 1993

* The following information was edited by OMRON based on the actual standard. OMRON assumes no responsibility for this information. You should always check the original text of the standard before implementing an actual application.

MeasureClassification of laser equipment
Engineering
controls
Class 1Class 2aClass 2Class 3aClass 3bClass 4
Protective
housing (4.3.1)
Mandatory
requirement.
Mandatory
requirement.
Mandatory
requirement.
Mandatory
requirement.
Mandatory
requirement.
Mandatory
requirement.
Without
protective
housing (4.3.1.1)
The laser safety officer (see note 2) must establish alternative controls.
Interlocks on
protective
housing (4.3.2)
Mandatory for
Class 3b or
Class 4.
Mandatory for
Class 3b or
Class 4.
Mandatory for
Class 3b or
Class 4.
Mandatory for
Class 3b or
Class 4.
Mandatory
requirement.
Mandatory
requirement.
Service access
panel (4.3.3)
Mandatory for
Class 3b or
Class 4.
Mandatory for
Class 3b or
Class 4.
Mandatory for
Class 3b or
Class 4.
Mandatory for
Class 3b or
Class 4.
Mandatory
requirement.
Mandatory
requirement.
Key controls
(4.3.4)
Not required.Not required.Not required.Not required.Recommen-
dations
Recommen-
dations
Viewing portals
(4.3.5.1)
Not required.Not required.Mandatory if
light exceeds
the maximum
allowed
exposure level.
Mandatory if
light exceeds
the maximum
allowed
exposure level.
Mandatory if
light exceeds
the maximum
allowed
exposure level.
Mandatory if
light exceeds
the maximum
allowed
exposure level.
Collecting optics
(4.3.5.2)
Mandatory if
light exceeds
the maximum
allowed
exposure level.
Mandatory if
light exceeds
the maximum
allowed
exposure level.
Mandatory if
light exceeds
the maximum
allowed
exposure level.
Mandatory if
light exceeds
the maximum
allowed
exposure level.
Mandatory if
light exceeds
the maximum
allowed
exposure level.
Mandatory if
light exceeds
the maximum
allowed
exposure level.
Totally open
beam path
(4.3.6.1)
Not required.Not required.Not required.Not required.Mandatory
requirement
Nominal value
of hazard zone
must be
analyzed.
Mandatory
requirement
Nominal value
of hazard zone
must be
analyzed.
Nominal value
of hazard zone
must be
analyzed.
Limited open
beam path
(4.3.6.2)
Not required.Not required.Not required.Not required.Mandatory
requirement
Nominal value
of hazard zone
must be
analyzed.
Mandatory
requirement
Nominal value
of hazard zone
must be
analyzed.
Enclosed beam
path (4.3.6.3)
Not required if requirements 4.3.1 and 4.3.2 are met.
Remote interlock
connector (4.3.7)
Not required.Not required.Not required.Not required.Recommen-
dations
Mandatory
requirement.
Beam stop or
attenuator (4.3.8)
Not required.Not required.Not required.Not required.Recommen-
dations
Mandatory
requirement.
Activation
warning systems
(4.3.9)
Not required.Not required.Not required.Not required.Recommen-
dations
Mandatory
requirement.
Emission delay
(4.3.9.1)
Not required.Not required.Not required.Not required.Not required.Mandatory
requirement.
Indoor laser
controlled area
(4.3.10)
Not required.Not required.Not required.Not required.Mandatory
requirement.
Nominal value
of hazard zone
must be
analyzed.
Mandatory
requirement.
Nominal value
of hazard zone
must be
analyzed.
Class 3b laser
controlled area
(4.3.10.1)
Not required.Not required.Not required.Not required.Mandatory
requirement.
Not required.
Class 4 laser
controlled area
(4.3.10.2)
Not required.Not required.Not required.Not required.Not required.Mandatory
requirement.
Laser outdoor
controls (4.3.11)
Not required.Not required.Not required.Not required.Mandatory
requirement.
Nominal value
of hazard zone
must be
analyzed.
Mandatory
requirement.
Nominal value
of hazard zone
must be
analyzed.
Lasers in
navigable airspace
(4.3.11.2)
Not required.Not required.Not required.Recommen-
dations
Recommen-
dations
Recommen-
dations
Temporary laser
controlled area
(4.3.12)
Mandatory for
Class 3b or
Class 4.
Mandatory if
light exceeds
the maximum
allowable
exposure level.
Mandatory for
Class 3b or
Class 4.
Mandatory if
light exceeds
the maximum
allowable
exposure level.
Mandatory for
Class 3b or
Class 4.
Mandatory if
light exceeds
the maximum
allowable
exposure level.
Mandatory for
Class 3b or
Class 4.
Mandatory if
light exceeds
the maximum
allowable
exposure level.
Not required.Not required.
Remote firing and
monitoring
(4.3.13)
Not required.Not required.Not required.Not required.Not required.Recommen-
dations
Labelling (4.3.14
and 4.7)
Mandatory
requirement.
Mandatory
requirement.
Mandatory
requirement.
Mandatory
requirement.
Mandatory
requirement.
Mandatory
requirement.
Area posting
(4.3.15)
Not required.Not required.Not required.Recommen-
dations
Mandatory
requirement.
Nominal value
of hazard zone
must be
analyzed.
Mandatory
requirement.
Nominal value
of hazard zone
must be
analyzed.
Standardized
operating
procedures (4.4.1)
Not required.Not required.Not required.Not required.Recommen-
dations
Mandatory
requirement.
Output emission
limitations (4.4.2)
Not required.Not required.Not required.To be determined by the laser safety supervisor
Education and
training (4.4.3)
Not required.Not required.Recommen-
dations
Recommen-
dations
Mandatory
requirement.
Mandatory
requirement.
Authorized
personnel (4.4.4)
Not required.Not required.Not required.Not required.Mandatory
requirement.
Mandatory
requirement.
Alignment
procedures (4.4.5)
Not required.Not required.Mandatory
requirement.
Mandatory
requirement.
Mandatory
requirement.
Mandatory
requirement.
Protection
equipment (4.4.6)
Not required.Not required.Not required.Not required.Recommen-
dations
Mandatory
requirement.
Spectator (4.4.7)Not required.Not required.Not required.Not required.Recommen-
dations
Mandatory
requirement.
Service
personnel (4.4.7)
Mandatory for
Class 3b or
Class 4.
Mandatory if
light exceeds
the maximum
allowable
exposure level.
Mandatory for
Class 3b or
Class 4.
Mandatory if
light exceeds
the maximum
allowable
exposure level.
Mandatory for
Class 3b or
Class 4.
Mandatory if
light exceeds
the maximum
allowable
exposure level.
Mandatory for
Class 3b or
Class 4.
Mandatory if
light exceeds
the maximum
allowable
exposure level.
Mandatory
requirement.
Mandatory
requirement.
Demonstration
with general
public (4.5.1)
Mandatory if
light exceeds
maximum
allowable
exposure
levels. Applies
only to
ultraviolet and
infrared lasers.
Not required.Mandatory
requirement.
Mandatory
requirement.
Mandatory
requirement.
Mandatory
requirement.
Laser optical
fiber systems
(4.5.2)
Mandatory if
light exceeds
the maximum
allowable
exposure level.
Mandatory if
light exceeds
the maximum
allowable
exposure level.
Mandatory if
light exceeds
the maximum
allowable
exposure level.
Mandatory if
light exceeds
the maximum
allowable
exposure level.
Mandatory
requirement.
Mandatory
requirement.
Laser robotic
installation
(4.5.3)
Not required.Not required.Not required.Not required.Mandatory
requirement.
Nominal value
of hazard zone
must be
analyzed.
Mandatory
requirement.
Nominal value
of hazard zone
must be
analyzed.
Eye protection
(4.6.2)
Not required.Not required.Not required.Not required.Recommen-
dations
Mandatory if
light exceeds
the maximum
allowed
exposure level.
Recommen-
dations
Mandatory if
light exceeds
the maximum
allowed
exposure level.
Protective
windows (4.6.3)
Not required.Not required.Not required.Not required.Mandatory
requirement.
Nominal value
of hazard zone
must be
analyzed.
Mandatory
requirement.
Nominal value
of hazard zone
must be
analyzed.
Protective
barriers and
curtains (4.6.4)
Not required.Not required.Not required.Not required.Recommen-
dations
Recommen-
dations
Skin protection
(4.6.5)
Not required.Not required.Not required.Not required.Mandatory
requirement.
Mandatory if
light exceeds
the maximum
allowed
exposure level.
Mandatory
requirement.
Mandatory if
light exceeds
the maximum
allowed
exposure level.
Other protective
equipment (4.6.5)
Use may be required.
Warning signs and
labels (4.7)
(Design
requirements)
Not required.Not required.Recommen-
dations
Recommen-
dations
Mandatory
requirement.
Nominal value
of hazard zone
must be
analyzed.
Mandatory
requirement.
Nominal value
of hazard zone
must be
analyzed.
Service and
repairs (4.8)
To be determined by the laser safety supervisor
Modification of
laser systems
(4.9)
To be determined by the laser safety supervisor

Note:
1. Level of requirement Mandatory: Shall. Preferable: Should
2. Laser Safety Officer (LSO)
The LSO is given the responsibility and authority to monitor and execute laser hazard controls, use knowledge to evaluate sources for laser hazards, and make countermeasures effective. Refer to Section 1.3 of ANSI standard Z136.1993.

Classification of Sensors Using Lasers

JIS/IEC/ENFDAProduct nameModelMaximum
output of
laser beam
Class
category
Class
category
Class 1Class 1 (Laser
Notice No.50)
Laser-type Smart SensorsZX2-LD50V0.24 mW
Class IIZX-LT001/0300.2 mW
Class IIZX-LT005/0100.35 mW
Class 1 (Laser
Notice No.50)
CMOS Laser Sensors with Built-
in Digital Amplifiers
ZX0-LD50A[]L/LD100A[]L/LD300A[]L/
LD600A[]L
0.24 mW
Class IIPhotoelectric Sensors with
Separate Digital Amplifiers
(Laser-type Amplifier Units)
E3C-LR121 mW
Class IIPhotoelectric Sensors with
Built-in Amplifiers (Laser-type
Amplifier Units)
E3Z-L[]4.5 mW
Class IISmart Laser CCD Micrometer
Sensors
ZX-GT[][]S0.2 mW
Class 2Class IILaser-type Smart SensorsZS-HLDS[]1 mW
Class IISmart Sensors (2D CMOS Laser
Type)
ZS-LD[][]1 mW
Class 2 (Laser
Notice No.50)
Laser-type Smart SensorsZX2-LD50L/LD50/LD100L/LD1001 mW
Class IIZX-LD[][] (excluding the ZX-LT Series)1 mW
Class 2 (Laser
Notice No.50)
CMOS Laser Sensors with Built-
in Digital Amplifiers
ZX0-LD50A[]/LD100A[]/LD300A[]/
LD600A[]
1 mW
Class IIPhotoelectric Sensors with
Separate Digital Amplifiers
(Laser-type Amplifier Units)
E3C-LD11/21/313 mW
Class IIE3C-LR113 mW
Class IISmart 2D Profile Measurement
Sensors
ZG2-WDS31 mW
Class 2MClass IIIbSmart 2D Profile Measurement
Sensors
ZG2-WDS70/WDS22/WDS85 mW

* For details, refer to your OMRON website.

Precautions for Safe Use of Laser Beams

(1) Ensure that the laser beam does not enter the eye either directly or by reflection off a mirror surface.

(2) Labels of the type shown below are attached to Sensors that use lasers. (These are typical examples.) Observe the instructions given on the labels when handling the Sensors.

Class 1 LabelsClass 2 LabelsClass 3B Labels

(3) Adjust the optical axis with an IR scope or a fluorescent plate that converts infrared rays into visible light.

Attach the following labels, supplied with the product, if the equipment is being exported to Europe or the USA. Labels for the USFDA are only supplied with products that have been applied for and registered by the FDA.

Europe (EN Standard)

USA (FDA)